Skip to main content

PentesterAcademy Vulnerable Servers II Lab Write-Up | metasploit-pivoting

PentesterAcademy Vulnerable Servers II Lab Write-Up | metasploit-pivoting Lab Link : https://attackdefense.pentesteracademy.com/challengedetails?cid=1747 Vulnerable Servers II is a lab from PentesterAcademy, which is rated as easy. The lab topology shows two machines which means, there are two targets and the attacker has to perform pivoting in order to hack and get the flag from the target machine. First Select the nearest Server and Click on Run the lab.   Once the lab is up, a web based terminal will be opened in the Web Browser. Firstly, check the IP address of the attacking machine.  We can see that, there are two interfaces. And as per the instructions, the first target machine should be 192.17.147.3. Let’s perform an Nmap scan of the target. The scan result shows that TCP port 8080 is open and is running an Apache Tomcat webserver/Coyote JSP engine 1.1. Let’s try to connect the webserver using netcat.   We can see that the Webserver is running OpenKM, a Document

Why you should not believe in Online Reviews and Social networking sites?

Most of us, before buying a product from Amazon/Flipkart, or before booking a movie ticket, we might go through the review section to see what others think about it, how good it is?, what are the pros and cons? etc.
Let me tell you a fact. Though there are genuine reviews written by genuine customers/users, majority of the reviews are paid reviews. Similarly paid opinions can be seen in forums like Quora, Yahoo Answers.When it comes to social networking websites, there are big companies working for corporate, political parties, ideological institutions.
Many of us are addicted to these social networking sites and we like and share things which we are not sure about. All want to monetize their profit and for that they will do even the worst methods to make things viral.These institutions pay millions of money to distribute and publicize their propaganda. In short, to brainwash the audience.

When thousands write a good review of a bad product, that product automatically becomes good in the public.

Most of the companies are running affiliate programs. Which means, you promote us and if someone buys a product through you, we will give a commission to you. One of the Site defines it's affiliate program as,
"You can use various promotional methods to earn easy commissions including placing banners, links, and writing product reviews on your website or blog. You will receive customized links for all the promotions, through which we will track sales. When any customer, referred by you, makes a purchase, you get paid."

There are plenty of online job sites serves over the internet. If you signup, you can see many online job offerings such as harvesting likes,up-votes, review writings, data entry etc.
It's funny that, you don't even need to find words to write a review. The review content is also provided by the marketing company and all you need to do is copy and paste it on relevant blogs, forums websites under your account (even from multiple accounts).
I have taken few screenshots from one of those site. Lets go through that and understand how companies can brainwash you with reviews and posts. When thousands write a good review of a bad product, that product automatically becomes good in the public.

The following screenshots are job advertisements , the employer is paying money to publicize their hashtag and their product.
jaacostan online review 

jaacostan online review

jaacostan online review
 Another job, the worker need to signup, comment and give a link to the product website.


jaacostan online review
See the instructions. Just follow this and get paid. Spread the propaganda, or publicize a product no matter how good or bad it is.

jaacostan online review
This job is to do the up-votes..lol.

jaacostan online review


Due to the large influence of Social Networking sites on common people, any one can throw money to circulate and publicize their propaganda. Even the Visual medias are also working like that.
So with this article, i remind each and everyone that Use your Brain, Think and Act. Don't blindly believe everything on the Internet. Don't blindly believe in what others says.

Everything around us are trying to brainwash our thoughts. So again, Use your Brain ! Always!

Popular posts from this blog

Cisco ASA: Disable SSLv3 and configure TLSv1.2.

For configuring TLS v1.2, the ASA should run software version 9.3(2) or later. In earlier versions of ASA, TLS 1.2 is not supported.If you are running the old version, it's time to upgrade. But before that i will show you the config prior to the change. I am running ASA version 9.6.1 Now ,set the server-version to tlsv1.2, though ASA supports version tlsv1.1, its always better to configure the connection to more secure. Server here in the sense, the ASA will be act as the server and the client will connect to the ASA.     #ssl server-version tlsv1.2 set the client-version to tlsv1.2, if required.     #ssl client-version tlsv1.2 ssl cipher command in ASA offers 5 predefined security levels and an additional custom level.     #ssl cipher tlsv1.2 high we can see the setting of each cipher levels using #show ssl cipher command. Now set the DH group to 24, which is the strongest offered as of now in the ASA.     #ssl dh-group group24 An

RUST error: linker `link.exe` not found

While compiling Rust program in a windows environment, you may encounter the error : linker `link.exe` not found. This is because of the absence of the C++ build tools in your machine. For compiling Rust programs successfully, one of the prerequisites is the installation of the Build Tools for Visual Studio 2019.   Download the Visual Studio 2019 Build tools from the Microsoft website. After the download, while installing the Build tools, make sure that you install the required components (highlighted in Yellow) This will download around 1.2GB of required files. Once everything is successfully installed, reboot and re-run your rust program and it will compile successfully.   Read More on RUST Hello World Rust Program : Code explained RUST Cargo Package Manager Explained Data Representation in Rust.

How to Install Netmiko on Windows?

Netmiko, developed by kirk Byers is an open source python library  based on Paramiko which simplifies SSH management to network devices and is primarily used for network automation tasks. Installing Netmiko in linux is a matter o f one single command but if you need to use Netmiko in your Windows PC, follow this process. 1) Install the latest version of Python. 2) Install Anaconda, which is an opensource distribution platform that you can install in Windows and other OS's (https://www.anaconda.com/download/) 3) From the Anaconda Shell, run “ conda install paramiko ”. 4) From the Anaconda Shell, run “ pip install scp ”. 5) Now Install the Git for Windows. (https://www.git-scm.com/downloads) . Git is required for downloading and cloning all the Netmiko library files from Github. 6) From Git Bash window, Clone Netmiko using the following command git clone https://github.com/ktbyers/netmiko&#8221         7) Once the installation is completed, ch

What is a Gratuitous ARP? How is it used in Network attacks?

Many of us encountered the word "Gratuitous" while exploring the network topic on ARP, The Address Resolution Protocol. Before explaining Gratuitous ARP, here is a quick review on how ARP works. ARP provides IP communication within a Layer 2 broadcast domain by mapping an IP address to a MAC address.For example, Host B wants to send information to Host A but does not have the MAC address of Host A in its ARP cache. Host B shoots a broadcast message for all hosts within the broadcast domain to obtain the MAC address associated with the IP address of Host A. All hosts within the same broadcast domain receive the ARP request, and Host A responds with its MAC address. We can see the ARP entries on our computers by entering the command arp -a . So, back to the topic on what is a Gratuitous reply, here is a better explanation. Gratuitous arp is when a device will send an ARP packet that is not a response to a request. Ideally a gratuitous ARP request is an ARP request packe

Google Cloud : Basic Cloud Shell commands

Google Cloud resources can be managed in multiple ways. It can be done using Cloud Console, SDK or by using Cloud Shell. A few basic Google Cloud shell commands are listed below. 1)    List the active account name gcloud auth list 2)    List the project ID gcloud config list project 3)    Create a new instance using Gcloud shell gcloud compute instances create [INSTANCE_NAME] --machine-type n1-standard-2 --zone [ZONE_NAME] Use gcloud compute machine-types list to view a list of machine types available in particular zone. If the additional parameters, such as a zone is not specified, Google Cloud will use the information from your default project. To view the default project information, use gcloud compute project-info describe 4)    SSH in to the machine gcloud compute ssh [INSTANCE_NAME] --zone [YOUR_ZONE] 5)    RDP a windows server gcloud compute instances get-serial-port-output [INSTANCE_NAME] --zone [ZONE_NAME] 6)    Command to check whether the server is ready f

Recovery Procedure: Alcatel-Lucent Omni-Switch not booting AOS: Going to Mini-boot prompt.

Problem: Switch not booting AOS; Going to Mini-boot prompt. Model: Alcatel-Lucent OS6850 [Note:The same procedure might be applicable for different models of Omni-Switches, However, for this illustration, i have used OS-6850 ] Reason: This problem may occurs due to corrupt AOS image files or misconfigured boot parameters. Hence switch cannot boot the images properly and will go to Mini-boot prompt.  Work Around: [Note: This zmodem procedure consumes a lot to time to finish the process.] 1.) Power off your OS6850 2.) When you switched it back on, stop it before the Miniboot (there is some counter counting down from 4). Press Enter to break. 3.) You will have the following prompt " => " 4.) Enter " setenv baudrate 115200 ”. Increasing baudrate helps to increase the data transfer speed using zmodem. 5.) Enter " saveenv " 6.) Enter " boot " 7.) The switch should run now in baud rate 115200 (so you have to change your clients ter

PrintNightmare (CVE-2021-1675) PoC exploit Walkthrough

I am not an exploit developer but was interested to see how this vulnerability can be exploited. So i tried to replicate the infamous PrintNightmare vulnerability using the following PoCs ( https://github.com/cube0x0/CVE-2021-1675 ) and ( https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework/pull/15385 ) However i had trouble with the new metasploit module (auxiliary/admin/dcerpc/cve_2021_1675_printnightmare) and i couldn't able to exploit the machine successfully. So i tried the second PoC from cube0x0. This one has done the magic. I just followed the guidelines with couple of tweaks. First of all, i installed the impacket (cube0x0 version) which will install the required modules and files. After that i set up a samba share with an anonymous login. This is required for hosting the dll file. I edited the smb.conf with the following settings. [global]     map to guest = Bad User     server role = standalone server     usershare allow guests = yes     idmap config * : backend = tdb     s

Cisco Modular Policy Framework (MPF) : A brief Introduction

Modular Policy Framework (MPF) configuration defines set of rules for applying firewall features, such as traffic inspection, QoS etc. to the traffic transiting the firewall There are 3 main components in creating a MPF. 1) Class Map Class map is used to identify the type of traffic. This can be done by creating an ACL. 2) Policy Map Policy Map specifies what action the ASA should take against the traffic identified by the Class Map. 3) Service Policy Finally Service policy specifies where to apply it. The policy is applied to an interface or Globally. Udacity has special offers worldwide to help anyone learn important, higher-paying job skills during this challenging time. Click here to get your offer and start learning now! Sample Illustration Consider the following Command lines. access-list OUTSIDE-TO-INSIDE permit tcp any any eq ftp <--- The above ACL will allow FTP traffic. This ACL can be different than the Interface ACL---> class-map FTP-CLASS-MAP     match ac

Microsoft Windows NLB Feature for Stateful Applications

NLB is a software-based load balancer (Windows Feature) that resides on each member in the cluster. Load Balancing is based on number of client connection requests and the NLB algorithm does not dynamically respond to changes in the load on each cluster host (such as the CPU load or memory usage or Network Usage). Thus, If client population is less and/or the connections produce varying loads on the server, the load balancing algorithm of Microsoft NLB is less effective. Udacity has special offers worldwide to help anyone learn important, higher-paying job skills during this challenging time. Click here to get your offer and start learning now! To understand how NLB preserve the session state, first let me take you through the difference between a stateful and stateless connections: Stateless The application connection is said to be stateless if the server does not store any state about the client session instead the session data is saved at th client side. The server does n

Cisco ASA Firewall: Packet Flow/Mode of Operation

Scenario : So here is a packet initiated from Inside to the Outside [ingress to egress]. 1) A user who is sitting inside of the network is trying to access a website located at the Internet (outside) 2) The packet hits the inside interface (Ingress) of ASA. 3) Once the packet reached ASA, it will verify whether this is an existing connection by checking its internal connection table. If it is an existing connection, the ACL check (step 4) will be bypassed and move to step 5. ASA will check for the TCP flag if its a TCP packet. If the packet contains a SYN flag, then the new connection entry will be created in the connection table(connection counter gets incremented). Other than SYN flag, the packet will be discarded and a log entry will be created. "Remember the 3-way handshake process. SYN/SYN-ACK/ACK. If the TCP connection flags are not in the order as it is intended to be, ASA will simply drop the packet. Most of the scanning/attacks are done by these flag manipula