Skip to main content

OWASP Top 10 : Injection Attacks

Injection Attacks.

 This can be broadly classified in to two major kinds. SQL injection and Command Injection.

SQL Injection : Occurs when the user input is passed to SQL queries. And as a result, the attacker can access the database and do what ever he want. He can manipulate the tables, delete etc. 

Command Injection : This occurs when user input is passed to the the target system as system commands. The attacker is able to execute arbitrary system commands on application servers.

The best way to prevent injection attacks is ensuring that user controlled input is not interpreted as queries or commands. Or simply known as input validation. This can be done in different ways:

Using an allow list: when a user input is sent to the target server, this input is compared to a list of safe input or characters. If the input is marked as safe, then it is processed.
Stripping input: If the input contains suspicious characters, these characters are stripped off before they are processed.
    
Command Injection occurs when server-side code (like PHP) in a web application makes a system call on the hosting machine using commands such as passthru . Such  web vulnerability allows an attacker to take advantage of that made system call to execute operating system commands on the target server. By exploiting the vulnerability, an attacker can spawn a reverse shell to become the user that the web server is running as. Once the attacker has a foothold on the web server, they can start the usual enumeration of your systems and start looking for ways to pivot around.



Popular posts from this blog

Cisco ASA: Disable SSLv3 and configure TLSv1.2.

For configuring TLS v1.2, the ASA should run software version 9.3(2) or later. In earlier versions of ASA, TLS 1.2 is not supported.If you are running the old version, it's time to upgrade. But before that i will show you the config prior to the change. I am running ASA version 9.6.1 Now ,set the server-version to tlsv1.2, though ASA supports version tlsv1.1, its always better to configure the connection to more secure. Server here in the sense, the ASA will be act as the server and the client will connect to the ASA.     #ssl server-version tlsv1.2 set the client-version to tlsv1.2, if required.     #ssl client-version tlsv1.2 ssl cipher command in ASA offers 5 predefined security levels and an additional custom level.     #ssl cipher tlsv1.2 high we can see the setting of each cipher levels using #show ssl cipher command. Now set the DH group to 24, which is the strongest offered as of now in the ASA.     #ssl dh-group group24 An

How to Install Netmiko on Windows?

Netmiko, developed by kirk Byers is an open source python library  based on Paramiko which simplifies SSH management to network devices and is primarily used for network automation tasks. Installing Netmiko in linux is a matter o f one single command but if you need to use Netmiko in your Windows PC, follow this process. 1) Install the latest version of Python. 2) Install Anaconda, which is an opensource distribution platform that you can install in Windows and other OS's (https://www.anaconda.com/download/) 3) From the Anaconda Shell, run “ conda install paramiko ”. 4) From the Anaconda Shell, run “ pip install scp ”. 5) Now Install the Git for Windows. (https://www.git-scm.com/downloads) . Git is required for downloading and cloning all the Netmiko library files from Github. 6) From Git Bash window, Clone Netmiko using the following command git clone https://github.com/ktbyers/netmiko&#8221         7) Once the installation is completed, ch

RUST error: linker `link.exe` not found

While compiling Rust program in a windows environment, you may encounter the error : linker `link.exe` not found. This is because of the absence of the C++ build tools in your machine. For compiling Rust programs successfully, one of the prerequisites is the installation of the Build Tools for Visual Studio 2019.   Download the Visual Studio 2019 Build tools from the Microsoft website. After the download, while installing the Build tools, make sure that you install the required components (highlighted in Yellow) This will download around 1.2GB of required files. Once everything is successfully installed, reboot and re-run your rust program and it will compile successfully.   Read More on RUST Hello World Rust Program : Code explained RUST Cargo Package Manager Explained Data Representation in Rust.

What is a Gratuitous ARP? How is it used in Network attacks?

Many of us encountered the word "Gratuitous" while exploring the network topic on ARP, The Address Resolution Protocol. Before explaining Gratuitous ARP, here is a quick review on how ARP works. ARP provides IP communication within a Layer 2 broadcast domain by mapping an IP address to a MAC address.For example, Host B wants to send information to Host A but does not have the MAC address of Host A in its ARP cache. Host B shoots a broadcast message for all hosts within the broadcast domain to obtain the MAC address associated with the IP address of Host A. All hosts within the same broadcast domain receive the ARP request, and Host A responds with its MAC address. We can see the ARP entries on our computers by entering the command arp -a . So, back to the topic on what is a Gratuitous reply, here is a better explanation. Gratuitous arp is when a device will send an ARP packet that is not a response to a request. Ideally a gratuitous ARP request is an ARP request packe

Recovery Procedure: Alcatel-Lucent Omni-Switch not booting AOS: Going to Mini-boot prompt.

Problem: Switch not booting AOS; Going to Mini-boot prompt. Model: Alcatel-Lucent OS6850 [Note:The same procedure might be applicable for different models of Omni-Switches, However, for this illustration, i have used OS-6850 ] Reason: This problem may occurs due to corrupt AOS image files or misconfigured boot parameters. Hence switch cannot boot the images properly and will go to Mini-boot prompt.  Work Around: [Note: This zmodem procedure consumes a lot to time to finish the process.] 1.) Power off your OS6850 2.) When you switched it back on, stop it before the Miniboot (there is some counter counting down from 4). Press Enter to break. 3.) You will have the following prompt " => " 4.) Enter " setenv baudrate 115200 ”. Increasing baudrate helps to increase the data transfer speed using zmodem. 5.) Enter " saveenv " 6.) Enter " boot " 7.) The switch should run now in baud rate 115200 (so you have to change your clients ter